The well known seminal work by Robert Putnam – based on research conducted in Italy and later in the USA- was based on vitality and engagement of civil societies and citizens as stakeholders in local/community/neighbourhoods development. Social capital commonly refers to the stocks of social trust, norms, and networks that people can draw upon in order to solve common problems. Two main dimensions were emphasized: social glue i.e. degree to which people take part in group life (bonding social capital) and social bridges or bridging social capital, which are the links between groups. Social capital is related to social cohesion and inclusion and it is recognised that both ‘have a strong local dimension’.
R. Putnam 1992 Making Democracy work, Civic traditions in Modern Italy Princeton University press
Dei Ottati G 1994 ‘Trust, interlinking transactions and credit in the industrial district’ in Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol.18
Knack, S. and Keefer, P., 1997 « Does social capital have an economic payoff ? A cross-country investigation », Quaterly journal of economics, v.112 n° 4
Fannie Mae Foundation 1998 Social capital: Its importance to housing and community developmentHousing Policy Debate review, vol 9
Santiago Loranca-Garcia (DG Employment) 2000 ‘Building Local social capital in the EU: partnership and Third system’ in Social capital: Global and Local perspectives Government Institute for Economic Research , VATT publication, Helsinki
R Putnam (ed.) 2002 Democracies in flux(with cases from UK, FR, DE, ES and SE) Oxford University Press
CONSCISE 2001-2003 The contribution of Social Capital in the Social Economy to Local Development in Western Europe Research report Middlesex University
A. Bagnasco (et al) 2001 Il capitale social, Istruzioni per l’usoIl Mulino
J Ballet et R Guillon 2003 Regards croisés sur le capital social L’Harmattan
S. Ponthieux 2006 Le capital socialLa Découverte
The World Bank has supported considerable research on this topic
The ESF (article 6) set up a programme ‘local social capital’, which was not clearly related to this then little known concept but instead supported pilot actions on community development finance and microfinance.
The Dublin Foundation has funded three research studies on Social capital in industrialised region and in rural areas.
With the rise of the so-called knowledge society, a new series of research studies highlight the potential of local regeneration associated with cultural development and information technologies. Social capital appears both as an input and an output of creativity and social innovation.
Florida R 2002 The rise of the creative class, Basic books, New York
Anderson C. 2007 La longue traîne, Editions Village mondial
Klein JL. et Harrisson D2007L’innovation sociale – émergence et effets sur la transformation des sociétés, Presses de l’université du Québec
Castells, M.1997 The power of identity, Blackwell Publisher, Oxford
Castells M 2009 Communication power, Oxford University Press