LED Conceptual Framework
Bingham, Richard D. and Robert Mier, Eds. (1993). Theories of Local Economic Development: Perspectives From Across the Disciplines. Sage Publications, CA.
Blair, John P. (1996). Local Economic Development: Analysis and Practice. Sage Publications, Inc.
Canzanelli, Giancarlo. (2001). Overview and Lessons Learnt on Local Economic Development, Human Development, and Decent Work. ILO Universitas Working Paper.
Clarke, S.E. and Gaile, G.L. (1992). The Next Wave; Postfederal Local Economic Development Strategies. Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 6 No. 2. pp. 87-198, Sage Publications, CA.
Council for Urban Economic Development. February (2000). Local Economic Development in the CEE/NIS Region. Overview Paper, Draft prepared for USAID.
Council for Urban Economic Development. January (1996). What Is Economic Development?: A Primer.
European Commission. (1997). Towards an Urban Agenda in the European Union. ‘Directions for the Future’. pp. 13-17. Communication from the European Commission COM (97)197, June, Brussels http://europa.eu.int/comm/urban/documents/d004_en.pdf.
Harris, N. with L. Bulbul, K. Mainuddin, X. Meng, S. Haguib, S. Srinivas. March (2000).
Garment-Making and Urbanisation: An Introductory Study of Four Cases. Urban and Local
Government Working Paper Series No. 6. Urban Development Unit. World Bank.
Iannone, D. (1997). Introduction to Economic Development: A Training Course for Economic
Development Professionals, Washington, D.C.: National Council for Urban Economic Development.
Kane, J. and Shinka M. (1994). Rethinking State Development Policies and Programs.
Washington DC. National Governors Association. This article describes the evolution of Local
Lyons, T. and Hamlin, R. (1990) Creating an Economic Development Action Plan: A Guide for Development Professionals. Praeger Publishing.
Mier R and Bingham R. (1993). Metaphors of Local Economic Development in Theories of Local
Economic Development: Perspectives from Across the Disciplines. pp. 284-304. Sage Publications, CA.
OECD. (1998). Arresting Decline in Urban Areas The OECD Observer No. 210 February/March.
The OECD has published a short and informative paper on the inadequacies of urban policies in OECD countries and how in the last two decades they are moving towards a ‘more integrated, multi-sector policy approach which has two main characteristics. First, they explicitly recognize the interrelationships between socio-economic factors affecting urban areas; they emphasize endogenous development and the creation of opportunities within the deprived neighbourhood’
OECD. Local Economies and Globalisation. LEED Notebook, No. 20. Good for case studies; this LEED Notebook, No 20 provides valuable information about Local Capacity Building.
World Bank (2000). Cities in Transition: World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy.
The World Bank has published a comprehensive strategy document to gear its assistance towards achieving the objectives of reducing poverty, promoting broad-based growth, protecting the environment, and supporting effective institutions. Achieving these objectives requires a closer working relationship with the local governments that are assuming greater responsibilities for delivering services that have direct impacts on people’s daily lives, in partnership with national governments and the communities themselves. In addition to the core urban development sectors, the global urban agenda is expanding to include diverse issues such as local economic development, capital market access, real estate market reform, urban cultural heritage, disaster mitigation, and public safety.
The Role of Local Economic Development Agencies
Humphreys, Eileen. (1996). LEDA Pilot Actions: Synthesis Report. Local and Regional Development Planning. London.
ILO. (1995). Lessons from the LEDA Programme. Local and Regional Development Planning.London.
Improving the Local Business Investment Climate
Stanchev, K., and Yonkova, A., Eds. Legal and Regulatory Reform: Impacts on Private Sector Growth. Institute for Market Economics, Sofia.
Encourage Local Business Growth
Arzeni, Sergio and Jean-Pierre Pelligrin. (1997). Entrepreneurship and Local Development. The OECD Observer, No 204 Feb./Mar 1997. This article also gives an excellent account of cluster networking for SMEs.
Bradshaw, Ted and Edward Blakely. (1999). What are ‘Third Wave’ State Local Economic Development Efforts? From Incentives to Industrial Policy. Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3. August 1999. pp. 229-244. Sage Publications, CA. This article presents an analysis of the shifting emphasis of local economic development policies and practices.
Ernst & Young. (1999). Thematic Evaluation of Structural Fund Impacts on SMEs. European Commission (DGXVI). This report goes into detail on the evaluation of SME support measures. It includes in-depth research methodology as well as case studies; a long, detailed, useful read. Good practice is highlighted in this report also.
Encouraging New Enterprise Sector (and business cluster) Development
Chappell, David S. and Hugh Sherman. (1998). Methodological Challenges in Evaluating Business Incubator Outcomes. Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 12, No 4. November 1998. pp. 313-321. Sage Publications, CA.
Buss, Terry F. (1999). The Case Against Targeted Industry Strategies. Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 13, No 4. November 1999. pp. 339-356. Sage Publications, CA. Puts forward some interesting points including the following: ‘Targeting is central planning and local industrial policy masquerading under different names: strategic planning, competition policy, retention/attraction and the like.’ This paper is worth reading not least to improve techniques for LED. www.weda.org/notes
Economic Development Administration. (1997). Cluster Based Economic Development: A key to Regional Competitiveness. Prepared by Information Design Associates with ICF Kaiser International. This is an excellent 4-page summary.
OECD. (1997). New Directions for Industrial Policy. Policy Brief No-3. This paper gives an overview on responses of industrial policy to the changing economic climate. It also has some excellent recommendations for further reading as well as giving details of relevant OECD research.
Roelandt, T. and den Hertog, P., Ed. (1998). Cluster Analysis and Cluster Based Policy in OECD Countries: Various Approaches, Early Results and Policy Implications. Draft synthesis report on Phase 1, OECD Focus Group on Industrial Clusters. OECD.
Area Targeting/Regeneration Strategies
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. (1998). Urban Development Corporations: Performance and Good Practice. Regeneration Research Summary 17.
OECD. (1999). Urban Brownfields, OECD Territorial Development Service.
European Commission. (1999). Sustainable Urban Development in the European Union: A Framework for Action. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM (98)605. The Commission advocates an area-based approach to the regeneration of deprived urban areas under the Structural Funds, integrating economic, social, cultural, environmental, transport and security aspects.
Integrating Low Income and Hard-to-Employ
Alcock, P, G Craig, P Lawless, S Pearson and D Robinson. (1998) Inclusive Regeneration: Local Authorities’ Corporate Strategies for Tackling Disadvantage. The Center for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University and The Policy Studies Research Center, University of Lincolnshire and Humberside. http://www.shu.ac.uk/cresr/index.html
Campbell, Mike with Ian Sanderson and Fiona Walton. November (1998). Local Responses to Long Term Unemployment. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. YPS York.
Campbell, Mike. (1997). The Third System, Employment and Local Development: Volume 1,
Synthesis Report, Policy Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University for the EU
http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/empl&esf/3syst/vol1_en.pdf. The Third system refers to a diverse range of organizations outside the traditional public and private sectors, encompassing co-operatives, mutuals, associations, foundations, charities, voluntary and not-forprofit organizations.
Campbell, M. and Hutchinson, J. (1998), Working in Partnership: Lessons from the Literature, Policy Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University, Research Report 63, Department for Education and Employment (June), Sheffield, England.
Lorthiois, J. (1996), Le Diagnostic Local de Ressources: Aide à la Décision, ASDIC,Lusigny sur Ouche et Editions W, Macon.
LEDA (1991), Orientations for Local Employment Development Strategies: Rural Areas,Local and Regional Development Planning, London, U.K.
OECD. (1998). Local Management for More Effective Employment Policy. OECD Paris.
Siegel, B. and P. Kwass. November (1995). Jobs and the Urban Poor. Publicly Initiated Sectoral Strategies. Mt. Auburn Associates Inc., Somerville, MA.
Canzanelli, Giancarlo and Giordano Dichter. (2001). Local Economic Development, Human Development and Decent Work. ILO/Universitas Working Paper that intends to provide an overview of LED ‘best practices’ from some international organizations and countries.
DPLG. Local Government and Economic Development: A Guide for Municipalities in South Africa. The booklet was prepared by the Department of Provincial and Local Government of South Africa and aims at spelling out in detail the context and the approaches which are available for local economic development in South Africa.
Bennett, R.J. and G. Krebs. (1991). Local Economic Development: Public-Private Partnership Initiative in Britain and Germany. Belhaven London.
OECD. (1999). Best Practices in Local Economic Development LEED, OECD.
Pizzinato, Antonio. (1997). Industrial Restructuring and Local Development – The Case of Sesto San Giovanni. OECD. LEED Notebook, No. 24. This paper also gives a useful overview of trends in the delivery of local economic development in areas of industrial decline.
Tavistock Institute and ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. February (1999). The Thematic Evaluation of the Partnership Principle. This evaluation of the partnership principle is the first major thematic evaluation of this guiding principal of the EU Structural Funds. The study aimed to demonstrate the impacts of partnership at the different stages of the policy cycle as well as highlighting areas, which have scope for improvement. The study was undertaken by means of 54 case studies across the Union conducted by teams of national experts in accordance with a common methodology.
Wong, Celia. (1998). Determining Factors for Local Economic Development: The Perception of Practitioners in the North West and Eastern Regions of the UK. Regional Studies. Vol.32.8. pp 707-720. This paper gives many references on research in both traditional and softer LED.
OECD. (1996). Transition at the Local Level: The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and the Slovak Republic, Paris.
International City/Council Management Association (2002). Community Based Economic Development Guidebook. Project for Kazakhstan supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The work book aims at supporting individual communities to formulate strategic plans and establish the foundations of an economic development program.
CEPAL. (2002). Desarrolo Economico Local y Descentralización en America Latina: analisis comparativo. With the support of GTZ, this project report analyses the potentials offered by an increasing number of decentralised institutions in Latin America to support local governments in promoting local economic development. www.cepal.org
Bartik, T. January (2002). Local Economic Development Policies. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No.3-91. http://www.upjohninstitute.org/publications/wp/03-91.pdf